Άλλο ένα "μείον" για την κυβερνητική πολιτική, από το Legatum Prosperity Index, μετά την συντριπτική έκθεση και την πτώση κατά 15 θέσεις στη διεθνή κατάταξη «Ελευθερία στην Οικονομία» σύμφωνα με την ετήσια έκθεση Index of Economic Freedom (βλ. σχετική μου ανάρτηση 12/1/11).
Το Legatum Prosperity Index είναι το μόνο παγκόσμιο εργαλείο αξιολόγησης του πλούτου αλλά και του επιπέδου ζωής και ευτυχίας των λαών.
Το Legatum Institute είναι ένα ανεξάρτητο κέντρο πολιτικών ερευνών που στοχεύει στην προώθηση των πολιτικών, οικονομικών και ατομικών ελευθεριών σε όλο τον κόσμο. Περισσότερα στοιχεία για το Ινστιτούτο μπορείτε να βρείτε στον ιστοχώρο www.li.com.
Το Prosperity Index™ αξιολογεί 110 χώρες, που αντιπροσωπεύουν το 90% του παγκόσμιου πληθυσμού και στηρίζεται σε 89 μεταβλητές, κάθε μία εκ των οποίων αντιστοιχεί σε σηγκεκριμένο χαρακτηριστικό οικονομικής ανάπτυξης ή προσωπικής ευδαιμονίας. Οι 89 αυτές μεταβλητές ομαδοποιούνται σε 8 κατηγορίες οι οποίες αντικατοπτρίζουν από ένα βασικό χαρακτηριστικό ευημερίας: Την Οικονομία, την Επιχειρηματικότητα, την Διακυβέρνηση (Κράτος), την Παιδεία,
την Υγεία, την Εθνική Ασφάλεια (εσωτερική και εξωτερική), τις Προσωπικές Ελευθερίες, την Κοινωνική Αλληλεγγύη.
Ακολουθούν τα αποτελέσματα που αφορούν την χώρα μας για το 2010. Για την ευκολότερη εξαγωγή συμπερασμάτων παραθέτω τα στοιχεία και της περιόδου 2009:
ΕΛΛΑΔΑ 2009 2010
ΣΥΝΟΛΙΚΗ κατάταξη 30 39
Οικονομία 42 41
Επιχειρηματικότητα 43 35
Παιδεία 5 21
Υγεία 13 22
Ασφάλεια 32 31
Διακυβέρνηση-Κράτος 30 46
Ατομικές Ελευθερίες 65 86
Κοινωνική Αλληλεγγύη 51 100
Η κατάταξη της χώρας μας σε αντίστοιχες μελέτες άλλων διεθνών οργανισμών είναι:
Legatum Prosperity Index 39th / 110
Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 41st / 110
Per Capita GDP Ranking 23rd / 110
WEF Global Competitiveness Index 83rd / 139
UN Human Development Index 25th / 182
Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 73rd / 179
TI Corruption Perceptions Index 71st / 180
Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 62nd / 149
Η αναλυτική έκθεση του Legatum Prosperity Index για την χώρα μας αναφέρει:...
Economy - Ranked 41st
Despite steady economic growth, Greeks are extremely pessimistic about the future
Greece has a comparatively low inflation rate of 4.2% and a gross domestic savings rate of only 12%. The official unemployment rate was recorded at an above average 7.7%, and just 47%* of respondents to a 2009 survey claimed to be in some form of employment. Despite an annual GDP growth rate per capita of 3.5% between 2004 and 2008, the public are pessimistic about the economy. Only 14%* of Greeks believe there are sufficient job opportunities in their country and very few* predict future growth, placing the country in the bottom 25 of the Index on both variables. Although the country ranks 17th in terms of access to food and shelter, less than six out of 10* are satisfied with their living standards, placing Greece 67th worldwide** for this variable. However, according to objective indicators, Greece has fairly positive foundations for future economic growth: it has the 27th largest market in the world, valued at 222 billion USD, an above global average rate of capital invested per worker, and the 34th highest rate of high-tech exports. Despite these figures, foreign direct investment remains below the global average. Greece places a low 72nd on the Index for its 5% rate of non-performing loans, and 108th for low levels of public confidence in financial institutions.
Entrepreneurship & Opportunity - Ranked 35th
Greece has a well-developed infrastructure for entrepreneurship, but perceptions of entrepreneurial opportunities are negative
There is a good level of registered innovative activity in Greece. The country spends a high 1.5% of its GDP on R&D and earns almost 44 million USD a year from intellectual property. More than 3% of Greece’s goods exports are ICT products, a rate which places the country 44th on this variable. Greece’s infrastructure for entrepreneurial activity is strong: it has the 18th highest level of mobile phone ownership in the world and places the country in the top 40 of the Index for both its internet bandwidth capacity and the number of secure internet servers. However, start-up costs are above the global average at 11% of GNI per capita. Despite these generally positive indicators, Greeks are pessimistic about the entrepreneurial environment. According to a 2009 survey, only two-thirds* of respondents believe that their city is a good place to start a new business, placing the country 75th worldwide on this variable. Greece has achieved a high level of equality of opportunity, but only 62%* of people believe that hard work will enable them to succeed, placing the country in the bottom quintile of the Index on this variable.
Governance - Ranked 46th
The Greek government and its policies are not widely supported by the population
Greece achieves the highest ranking for the level of its democracy and places 37th for its governance, indicating an effective and efficient bureaucracy. Greece has a relatively stable political system, as more than 30 years have passed since the last regime change. However, Greece’s political structures lack the checks and balances that help to ensure accountability, placing the country a low 83rd on this variable. There is also a lack of competition in the executive and legislative branches of government as well as ineffective regulation of the executive function. The Greek government is extremely unpopular: only 34%* approve of the government itself. Further, just 13%* approve of the country’s efforts to preserve the environment, and less than 9%* approve of the country’s efforts to address poverty. Greece places among the bottom 30 countries of the Index on all three variables. Many people* consider the government and businesses to be corrupt, placing the country a low 104th on this variable. However, the rule of law is relatively strong in Greece, and there is fairly effective regulation of the commercial sector. Confidence in the military and the judiciary is also above the global average, placing Greece 36th* and 43rd* on these variables, respectively. Greeks enjoy full political rights. Consequently, 77%* of people believe that national elections are conducted honestly. However, only a sixth* of respondents to a 2009 survey felt able to voice their opinions to a public official.
Education - Ranked 21st
Greece’s high enrolment rates translate into a moderately well-educated
Greece places among the top 20 countries of the Index for its educational enrolment rates: there is 99% net primary enrolment, 102% gross secondary enrolment, and 91% gross tertiary enrolment. Additionally, Greece has gender equality in primary and secondary education. It also has the fifth smallest class sizes on the Index, with one teacher for every 10 pupils. However, subjective assessments of Greece’s educational system are not positive. Only 59%* of people are satisfied with the quality of their local educational institutions and a low 65%* believe that children have sufficient opportunities to learn, placing Greece 86th and 71st on these variables, respectively. The typical Greek worker has a below global average 1.8 years of secondary education, but a very high 1.6 years of tertiary education.
Health - Ranked 22nd
Although Greece has a high level of health expenditure, its healthcare system produces only moderate results
Greeks have a health-adjusted life expectancy of 71 years, placing them in the top 20 of the Index. Greece has the 12th lowest rate of infant mortality, but a 6% rate of malnourishment, which is around the global average. The Greek government spends just over $3,000 (PPP) per capita on health, the 14th highest rate on the Index, but does not achieve corresponding results on healthcare indicators. Fewer than nine out of 10 children are given vaccinations for infectious diseases and measles, placing Greece 73rd and 74th in the Index, respectively. The number of deaths caused by respiratory disease is above the global median, but the low incidence of TB places Greece in the top third of the Index on this variable. Greece is more successful in the provision of hospital beds, placing 31st on this variable, and there is near universal access to sanitation facilities. However, in 2009, only seven out of 10* people were satisfied with the quality of their water. Subjective indicators of public health are similarly mixed. According to survey data from 2009, 82%* of Greeks were satisfied with their level of personal health and only 21%* reported health problems, placing Greece 50th and 37th, respectively. However, more than two out of five* respondents had felt worried on the previous day and less than three out of five* had felt wellrested. These figures place Greece in the bottom 20 of the Index for these variables, indicating poor health among the Greeks. Nevertheless, with 79%* of people reporting to be happy with their immediate surroundings, Greece places in the top half of the Index for its physical environment.
Safety & Security - Ranked 31st
Greek citizens benefit from strong national security and feel safe performing daily activities
Greece’s national security is not under threat. There are very few refugees or internally displaced people, and group grievances are almost non-existent and there were no deaths as a result of civil or ethnic strife in 2008. Demographic instability resulting from border disputes, ownership or occupancy of land, access to transportation outlets, control of religious or historical sites, and proximity to environmental hazards is low. Emigration among Greece’s professional classes is also low, placing the country 39th on the human flight variable. However, the government is at times responsible for acts of violence against political dissidents, placing Greece only slightly above the global average on the political terror scale. Crime rates are very low in Greece, indicating a high level of personal security. According to a 2009 survey, fewer than 3%* of respondents had been assaulted in the previous 12 months and only 6%* had had property stolen, placing Greece 22nd and eighth, respectively. The majority* of the population feel safe walking alone at night, which places the country around the global average, and many* feel confident expressing their political opinions, suggesting high levels of freedom of speech.
Personal Freedom - Ranked 86th
Greeks are generally dissatisfied with their freedom of choice and perceived levels of tolerance to outsiders are low
Greeks enjoy almost unrestricted levels of freedom of expression, belief, association, and personal autonomy. Despite this, less than half* of the population are satisfied with their level of individual freedom, the sixth lowest rate on the Index. Levels of perceived tolerance are also low with 57%* and 53%* of the population indicating that their area is a good place for immigrants and ethnic and racial minorities to settle, respectively. These shares place Greece amongst the bottom 30 countries in the Index.
Social Capital - Ranked 100th
Low community engagement and low levels of trust result in weak social ties in Greece
In a 2009 survey, only 17%* of respondents felt they could trust others and less than 30%* had helped a stranger in the previous month, ranking Greece 65th and 103rd, respectively. Levels of community engagement are generally low with only 8%* making regular financial donations to charity and 5%* volunteering their time. This places Greece in the lowest six countries of the Index for these variables. Social networks are also extremely weak, as fewer than four out of five* people feel they can rely on family and friends in times of need. According to the same 2009 survey, just 29%* of respondents had visited a place of worship in the previous seven days, indicating below global average access to religious networks. However, a slightly above* average marriage rate indicates higher access to familial networks.
* Data taken from the Gallup World Poll
** The terms 'international', 'global', or 'world' are used to reference the 110 Prosperity Index countries, which represent approximately 93% of the world’s population and 97% of global GDP.
Κατεβάζετε τα full reports από εδώ: http://www.prosperity.com/default.aspx